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[32起落架] A320飞机轮胎检查维护标准

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发表于 2017-2-6 23:02:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本文参考空客AMM手册和服务信函,介绍了A320系列飞机轮胎检查维护标准。中英双语,图文并茂,希望有用。
1. Normal wear正常磨损
An equal wear of the tread shows that the tire maintenance was correct during the tire life.
胎面的均匀磨损说明在轮胎寿命周期内得到了正确维护
At the main base (or maintenance base), the tire shall be removed from aircraft if:
当飞机在基地站,轮胎必须被更换,如果:
  • The tread wear is at the bottom of groove at one or more points;
  • 胎面一处或多处沟槽磨平;
  • You can see the reinforced ply (bias tire) or the protector ply (radial tire) at one or more points of the tread surface.
  • 胎面一处或多处可见加强层(斜交胎)或保护层(子午胎)

NOTE
TIRES HAVING REACHED THE ABOVE LIMITS SHOULD BE REPLACED IMMEDIATELY.
轮胎超限需要立即更换。
A SINGLE RETURN TO BASE (*) FLIGHT IS PERMITTED IF THE AIRCRAFT IS IN OUTSIDE STATION.
如果飞机在外站,一个返回基地站(*)的单向航段是允许的。
(*) Any station where a spare wheel is available.任意有轮子的航站
2. Uneven wear不均匀磨损
Usually, under-inflation (inflation pressure less than 90% of the nominal pressure  can cause:
通常,充气不足(压力小于规定压力的90%),可能造成:
  • too much tread shoulder wear,
  • 胎肩磨损严重,
  • high deflection of the tire, with subsequent heat build-up which can cause important internal tire damage.
  • 轮胎变形严重,导致胎内热量积压,这将造成严重胎内损伤(剥离、脱/甩胶等)。

Over inflation (when the tire pressure is more than 105% of the nominal pressure can:
充气过多(胎压高于规定压力的105%),可能:
  • cause too much wear on the center of the tire tread,
  • 造成胎面中部磨损严重
  • increase the risk of Foreign Object Damage (FOD) to the tire.
  • 增加外来物损伤轮胎风险

NOTE
TIRES HAVING REACHED THE ABOVE LIMITS SHOULD BE REPLACED IMMEDIATELY.
轮胎超限需要立即更换。
A SINGLE RETURN TO BASE (*) FLIGHT IS PERMITTED IF THE AIRCRAFT IS IN OUTSIDE STATION.
如果飞机在外站,一个返回基地站(*)的单向航段是允许的。
(*) Any station where a spare wheel is available.任意有轮子的航站
3. Overspeed超速
On A318, A319, A320 and A321 aircraft, the maximum operation speed is 225 MPH (195 KTS)(Ground Speed).
A320系列飞机,最大操作速度是225迈(195节)(地速)。
If a tire overspeed occurs during take-off or landing, Remove all the wheels immediately. Send the tires back to the tire manufacturer.
如果飞机轮胎在起飞或着陆期间超速,必须更换所有轮子,并送回制造商。
NOTE
There is no tolerance.
没有容限,必须更换
4. Tread damage胎面损伤
(1) Flat spots点状磨平
Flat spot are caused by locking of the wheel during braking, hard touch down or sudden steering maneuvers (for the NLG tires).
点状磨平是由刹车锁死、重着陆、突然转向(前轮)造成的。
The tire shall be removed from aircraft if the flat spot reaches the reinforcing ply (bias tire) or the protector ply (radial tire).
如果磨平点到达加强层(斜交胎)或保护层(子午胎),轮胎需要更换。
NOTE
IF THE FLAT SPOT DOES NOT REACH THE ABOVE-MENTIONED LIMIT, IF THERE IS SUFFICIENT GROOVE DEPTH IN THE WHOLE FLAT SPOT AREA, IF THERE IS NO INCIPIENT SEPARATION AND IF VIBRATION IS NOT DETECTED DURING ROLLING, THE TIRE CAN REMAIN IN SERVICE.
如果磨平点没有超限,如果磨平处沟槽足够深,如果没有分层迹象,且如果行使过程中没有震动,轮胎可以继续使用
(2) Peeled rib胎肋剥落
Usually starts with a cut in the tread and results in a circumferential delamination of the tread rib away from the tire carcass.
胎肋丢失通常开始于胎面割伤,导致胎肋从胎体帘布层周向分层
Remove the tire immediately.
立即更换。
(3) Tread rubber reversion胎面褶皱
Tread rubber reversion is generally caused by wheel locking on wet or ice covered runways. The affected area is similar in shape to a flat spot (oval), but the rubber appears to be melted.
胎面橡胶还原通常是在湿滑、结冰跑道上轮子抱死造成的。影响区域呈椭圆形斑块,橡胶呈现融化状态。
The tire shall be removed from aircraft if:
更换条件:
  • the reinforcing ply (bias tire) or the protector ply (radial tire) is reached,
  • 见加强层(斜交胎)或保护层(子午胎),
  • shimmy or unbalance problem are experienced
  • 出现震动、平衡问题

(4) Thrown tread胎面丢失
Thrown tread is a total or partial loss of tread that lets you see the carcass plies. Early signs of tread separation can occur in the form of tread bulges, local uneven wear (depression) or local tread/sidewall rubber split.
胎面丢失是胎面全部或部分丢失,以致你能看到胎体帘布层。胎面分层早期迹象,以胎面鼓包、局部不均匀磨损、局部胎面胎侧橡胶开裂的形式发生。
Remove the tire immediately.
立即更换。
NOTE
Get pieces of tread from the airport authorities and send them back to home  base so that the vendor can make an analysis
碎片送回供应商分析
If the tire is still inflated after the aircraft is parked, it is necessary to wait three hours (for tire cooling) before you record the pressure.Then, deflate the tire before removal of the wheel assembly.
等待轮胎降温,放气后,方可更换
(5) Tread cuts胎面割伤
Foreign objects that are present on the runway, taxiway and parking areas cause cuts to the tires.
出现在跑道、滑行道、停机坪的外来物,造成轮胎割伤。
The definition of cut limits is complex, it is based on the service experience of each vendor. Because of the different technologies and tire constructions, damage tolerance can be different for each manufacturer.
割伤限制标准比较复杂,这基于每一个供应商使用经验。因为对于不同制造商,不同技术和轮胎构造,损伤容限可能不同。
Refer to the relevant vendor’s manual for details. In the absence of specific cut limits in documentation, the tire shall be removed from the aircraft if:
详情参考相关供应商手册,如果文件中没有确切割伤限制,轮胎更换条件如下:
  • cut or embedded object exposes or penetrates the reinforcing ply (bias tire) or the protector ply (radial tire):
  • 割伤或插入物,可见或穿透加强层(斜交胎)或保护层(子午胎):



    • Cut penetrates the outer casing ply (bias tire) or the outer layer (radial tire).
    • 割伤穿透帘布层最外层
    • Cut length is greater than 50.8 mm (2 in) or
    • 割伤长度大于2英寸
    • Cut width is greater than 3.175 mm (0.125 in) or
    • 割伤宽度大于0.125英寸
    • Cut is not contained within one rib.
    • 割伤分布在多个胎肋上
    • Cut is contained within one rib but the ends of the cut are more than 12.7 mm (0.5 in) apart when measured in the radial direction.
    • 割伤在一个胎肋里,但是切口两头径向测量长度超过0.5英寸

  • cut or embedded object does not expose or does not penetrate the reinforcing ply (bias tire) or the protector ply (radial tire):
  • 割伤或插入物,不可见或没有穿透加强层(斜交胎)或保护层(子午胎):



    • Cut length is greater than 304.8 mm (12 in) or
    • 割伤长度大于12英寸
    • Cut width is greater than 3.175 mm (0.125 in) or
    • 割伤宽度大于0.125英寸
    • Cut is not contained within one rib.
    • 割伤分布在多个胎肋上
    • Cut is contained within one rib but the ends of the cut are more than 12.7 mm (0.5 in) apart when measured in the radial direction.
    • 割伤在一个胎肋里,但是切口两头径向测量长度超过0.5英寸

(6) Chevron cutting胎面鱼鳞纹
Tread damage (small z-, s- or v-shaped cracks) caused by running and / or braking on cross-grooved runways.
胎面损伤(呈Z、S、V形状的小裂纹)是由于在十字槽跑道行驶或刹车造成的
If there are no cut limits specified in the documentation and if:
如果供应商文件中没有确切割伤限制,轮胎更换条件如下:
  • The tire is at the limits given for tread cuts
  • 轮胎达到割伤限制条件
  • You can see the tread reinforcing ply (bias tire) or the protector ply (radial tire).
  • 可以看到加强层(斜交胎)或保护层(子午胎)

(7) Groove cracking胎槽裂纹
Groove cracking can occur after environmental aggression of the rubber (ozone attack for example) or too much mechanical loading of the tire. These cracks occur at the bottom of the tread groove.
胎槽裂纹是由于橡胶受到环境侵蚀(比如臭氧侵蚀)或轮胎机械负荷造成。这些裂纹发生在胎槽底部。

If there are no cut limits specified in the documentation and if:
如果供应商文件中没有确切割伤限制,轮胎更换条件如下:
  • if groove cracking lets you see the reinforcing ply (bias tire) or the protector ply (radial tire)or,
  • 可以看到加强层(斜交胎)或保护层(子午胎)
  • groove cracking undercuts the adjacent rib.
  • 胎槽裂纹延伸到胎肋下部

(8) Rib undercutting肋根割伤
Rib undercutting is an extension of groove cracking caused by mechanical loading that continues below a tread rib. It can caused tread chunking, peeled rib or thrown tread.
肋根割伤是胎槽裂纹扩张的一种,由胎肋下持续机械负载导致,可能导致胎面掉块、胎肋剥落、胎面丢失。
The tire shall be removed as soon as the crack extends under the rib.
当裂纹延伸到胎肋下面,需立即更换轮胎
(9) Open tread splice胎面结合断裂
This is a crack in the rubber where tread joint or splice separates
这是在橡胶制品中,胎面结合处分离,产生的裂纹
Remove the tire immediately.
立即更换。
(10) Tread chipping and chunking胎面掉块
This is a condition that you can see at the edge of the tread rib where small quantities of rubber start to separate from the tread surface. Tread chunking can be caused by high lateral loading of the tire sometimes caused by tight turning.
这种情况,可以看到胎肋边缘存在多处小块橡胶开始从胎面分离。胎面掉块是由于轮胎收到高的侧面负载导致,通常是由于大转弯角度导致。

If you can see the fabric,Remove the tire immediately.
若果可以看到纺织物,立即更换轮胎
5. Sidewalls damage侧壁损伤
(1) Cuts or cracks on the sidewall侧壁割伤、裂纹
Foreign objects on the operating surfaces frequently cause sidewall cuts.
操作面外来物导致侧壁割伤
If you can see the sidewall cords or if the sidewall cords are damaged, Remove the tire immediately.
见线即换,线断即换
(2) Weathering and radial cracking风化、径向裂纹
Weathering and cracking occur when tires are in aggressive environmental conditions.
环境侵蚀导致风化、裂纹
If you can see the sidewall cords , remove the tire immediately.
见线即换
(3) Blisters and bulges鼓包
They usually are a sign of separation of components.
这是轮胎部件分离的标志
Remove the tire immediately. Put marks on the damage area before you deflate the tire for easy identification and analysis by the vendor.
立即更换,鼓包处标记
6. Contamination damage污染损伤
This can be caused by brake oil, tar oil, solvent, chemicals and hydrocarbon based products.
刹车液压油、焦油、溶剂、化学品和碳氢化合物产品可以造成污染
The tire has to be cleaned quickly with isopropyl alcohol to remove the contaminant then washed with a soap and water solution.
轮胎必须立即用异丙醇清洁,然后用肥皂水清洁。
If the rubber is tacky, the wheel must be changed.
如果轮胎橡胶粘稠,必须更换
7. Circular tire movement on the wheel轮胎圆周运动
If, after the first flight cycle, the circular tire movement is less than 20 degrees:
在第一次5个飞行周期后,如果轮胎圆周运动小于20°:
Keep the wheel on the aircraft, Monitor the circular tire movement during the subsequent five flight cycles.
无需更换,监控后续5个飞行周期轮胎圆周运动情况
If, after five flight cycles, the circular tire movement is more than 20 degrees:
5个飞行周期后,如果轮胎圆周运动超过20°:
Replace the wheel, Send the tire to the tire shop for inspection.
更换轮子
NOTE: For more information, refer to the tire manufacturer specifications.
8.Reference参考资料
AMM TASK 32-41-00-210-002-A - Inspection/Check of the Wheels and Tires
SIL 32-121 TIRES INSPECTION – IN-SERVICE REMOVAL CRITERIA

PS:本文仅供学习使用
下夜班起来翻译,难免错误,还请指正

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发表于 2017-2-9 14:47:40 | 显示全部楼层
缺少着陆摩擦系数
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发表于 2017-12-7 21:56:46 | 显示全部楼层
嗯嗯,作为新学员,涨了大见识了,非常感谢
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发表于 2017-12-15 17:11:53 | 显示全部楼层
看一看参考一下。。。~
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发表于 2017-12-15 19:07:23 | 显示全部楼层
666赞赞赞15个字符
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发表于 2017-12-15 21:47:12 | 显示全部楼层
有图且解说详细,学习了
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发表于 2018-4-17 13:46:26 | 显示全部楼层
辛苦了,怎样维护轮胎学习了,谢谢
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发表于 2018-4-17 14:20:40 | 显示全部楼层
每个公司标准不一样,这个具体还是应该以各公司TB为准
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发表于 2018-5-2 13:52:42 | 显示全部楼层
受益匪浅,谢谢
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发表于 2018-5-2 16:21:55 | 显示全部楼层
感谢分享,谢谢。
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发表于 2018-5-2 20:04:02 | 显示全部楼层
受益匪浅原来如此
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发表于 2018-5-3 09:22:05 | 显示全部楼层
说的很详细哦
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发表于 2018-5-17 00:38:23 | 显示全部楼层
感谢分享,谢谢。
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发表于 2018-5-30 15:01:55 | 显示全部楼层
学习了
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发表于 2018-6-2 21:52:30 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢,辛苦了,能做成pdf就好了。
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发表于 2018-6-10 17:12:52 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢,辛苦了,能做成pdf就好了
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发表于 2018-6-11 08:38:49 | 显示全部楼层
正好需要,多谢
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发表于 2018-7-26 15:32:54 | 显示全部楼层
320轮子最容易受损的部位是哪里
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发表于 2018-7-26 17:08:20 | 显示全部楼层
yj1 发表于 2018-7-26 15:32
320轮子最容易受损的部位是哪里

胎面的磨损和扎伤,胎肩的磨损,侧壁裂纹鼓包等
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