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[综合] 空客手把手教你如何适用MEL放行飞机

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发表于 2020-5-8 19:36:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
今天跟大家分享一篇在空客官方出版的杂志《SAFETY FIRST》上看到一篇关于如何正确使用MEL放行飞机的文章,感觉特别不错,写的特别详细、内容也丰富,包括MEL是如何编制的,适用于哪些情况,如何使用,使用的要求等等,下面就一起来看一下。

微信图片_20200508182559.jpg
The dispatch under a Minimum Equipment List (MEL) item allows to dispatch an aircraft in a safe and airworthy condition when certain system functions or equipment are temporarily unavailable or inoperative, enabling the aircraft to continue earning revenue without compromising the safety of the flight.在最低设备清单(MEL)项下允许在某些系统功能或设备暂时不可用或不能使用的情况下,在安全且适航的情况下放行飞机,使飞机能够在不损害飞行安全的情况下继续赚取收入。

But, what are the MEL principles and are there good practices to think about when dispatching an aircraft with an MEL item in the tech log?
但是,MEL的原则是什么?在技术记录本MEL项目放行飞机时,有什么好的做法值得考虑?


MMEL
The Airbus MMEL is a dispatch document that is produced by the aircraft manufacturer and approved by the certification authorities.
空客MMEL是由飞机制造商生产并由认证机构批准的放行文件。

The MMEL is used as a reference by the Operators to create their own MEL, which will permit the dispatch and operation of an aircraft with one or more inoperative equipment or unavailable system function while maintaining an acceptable level of safety.
MMEL被运营人作为参考来制定他们自己的MEL,它将允许一个或多个设备或系统功能在不可用的情况下放行飞机并运行,同时保持一个可接受的安全水平。


MEL
The MEL is a dispatch document developed by the Operator based on the aircraft manufacturer’s MMEL. The MEL must be as restrictive as or more restrictive than the MMEL and must be approved by the Operator’s national airworthiness authorities.
MEL是运营人基于飞机制造商的MMEL开发的放行文件。MEL必须和MMEL一样严格,或者比MMEL更为严格,并且必须经过运营人的国家适航当局的批准。

The MEL permits the Operator to assess the impact on their operations (flight schedule, route, environmental conditions,...) while operating an aircraft with systems, functions or components inoperative, thus to optimize aircraft dispatch reliability and profitability without impairing safety.
MEL允许运营人自行评估在飞机某些系统功能或部件失效的情况下放行飞机对航班运行的影响(飞行计划、航线、环境条件等),从而在不影响安全的情况下优化飞机调度的可靠性和盈利能力。

How is the MMEL developed?

The MMEL provides a list of items with associated conditions for dispatch. For every item, Airbus must demonstrate that the associated dispatch conditions are compliant with the certification requirements as specified by EASA. The major steps of this demonstration are the following:
MMEL提供了一个包含与放行相关条件的项的列表。对于每个项目,空客必须证明相关的放行条件符合EASA规定的认证要求。本示范的主要步骤如下:

Step 1: Assessment of the MMEL item to identify any operational impact or impact on other system functions, and check if there is any influence on the safety level of the aircraft.
步骤1:评估MMEL项目,以确定任何操作影响或对其他系统功能的影响,并检查是否对飞机的安全水平有任何影响。

Step 2: Identification and assessment of the operational and safety impact of the next critical aircraft system failure which may occur during subsequent flights.
第二步:识别和评估可能在后续飞行中发生的下一个飞机关键系统故障给的操作和安全影响。

Step 3: Definition of any maintenance actions or operational procedures that may be necessary as a means of mitigation for the assessed impacts of the MMEL item.
步骤3:定义任何可能的维护措施或操作程序是一项必要的措施,以减轻对MMEL项目评估的影响。

Based on the above assessments, a dispatch status is defined for each MMEL item as either:
根据上述评估,每个MMEL项目的放行状态定义为:

- “GO” when the dispatch is permitted for a limited period of time without specific dispatch condition, or
-“放行”在没有特定放行条件的情况下,在限定的时间内允许放行,或

- “GO IF” when the dispatch is permitted for a limited period of time with specific dispatch conditions, or
“有条件的放行” 是指在有特定放行条件的有限时间内允许的放行,或

- “NO GO” when the dispatch is not permitted and corrective maintenance action must be undertaken before the aircraft can continue operations.
“不可放行”是指不允许放行飞机,在飞机继续飞行之前,必须采取正确的维护措施。

微信图片_20200508182615.jpg


How is the MEL developed?
The Operator’s MEL is a dispatch document which should be tailored according to the Operator’s routes, procedures and applicable local regulations, and within the constraints defined by the aircraft manufacturer’s MMEL.
运营人的MEL是一份放行文件,该文件应根据经营者的航线、程序和适用的当地法规,并在飞机制造商的MMEL规定的约束范围内进行制定。

When does the MEL apply?
As per regulations, when there are failures or defects that cannot be rectified, and which are covered by an MEL item, the MEL must be applied prior to departure and accepted the Captain.
根据规章,当有不能纠正的故障或缺陷时,并且有MEL项目覆盖时,MEL必须在放行前使用并得到机长的认可。

The “departure” corresponds to the “commencement of the flight”.“The commencement of the flight” is defined as the moment when the aircraft starts to move under its own power for the purpose of takeoff (i.e. the taxi phase).
“离港”相当于“飞行开始”。“开始飞行”是指飞机为了起飞,而以自身动力开始移动的时刻。(即滑行阶段)

EASA and FAA require Operators to define procedures in their MEL for the management of any failure that occurs during the taxi-out phase.
EASA和FAA要求运营人在他们的MEL中定义程序,以管理在滑行阶段发生的任何故障。


EASA regulations
The EASA regulations require that Operators define an appropriate guidance for flight crew for the management of failures if they occur between the start of taxi and commencement of takeoff roll.
EASA规定要求运营人为机组人员制定适当的指南,以管理在滑行开始和起飞之间发生的故障。

The EASA regulations also state that the captain may decide to continue with the flight based on their “good judgment and airmanship”. Additionally, their regulations allow flight crew to consult the MEL if it will help them to make a decision. Communication with dispatch, or the Operator’s maintenance control centre, may assist the flight crew in their assessment of the MEL item and aid the Captain to decide if they will continue with the flight or not.
EASA的规章还规定,机长可以根据“良好的判断和飞行技术”决定继续飞行。此外,他们的规定允许机组人员咨询MEL,如果它将帮助他们作出决定。与放行工程师或运营人的维修控制中心的沟通,可以帮助机组人员评估MEL项目,并帮助机长决定他们是否继续飞行。

The final decision to continue with the flight is the responsibility of the Captain. This decision should be based on any operational considerations that could impair the current flight and also consider any impact on the subsequent missions of the aircraft.
决定最后继续飞行是机长的责任,这项决定应以任何可能损害当前飞行的行动为考虑根据,并应考虑到对该飞机随后的航班任务的任何影响。

FAA regulations
The FAA regulations require that Operators establish a procedure for the Pilot In Command (PIC) to communicate with the aircraft dispatch and maintenance organizations when a failure occurs after an aircraft departs the gate or ramp area, during pushback, taxi or prior to take-off.
FAA的规章要求,当飞机离开登机口或停机坪区域、推出、滑行或起飞前发生故障时,运营人要建立一套程序,让总指挥飞行师(PIC)与飞机放行工程师和维修组织进行沟通。

This procedure permits the flight crew to review the situation and determine if the aircraft can be either dispatched with the failure under the MEL item, or if the failure must be rectified before take-off. If a dispatch with the failure under the relevant MEL item is advised, the return to the gate to accomplish the appropriate maintenance or operational procedure must be considered. In coordination with the Operator’s dispatch and maintenance organization, certain MEL procedures may be accomplished by the flight crew without returning to the gate, provided these procedures are approved by the FAA’s Principal Operations Inspector (POI).
这一程序允许机组人员对情况进行检查,并确定是否可以在飞机故障的情况下使用MEL项目放行飞机,或在起飞前必须纠正故障。如果发生的故障有相关MEL项目建议,必须考虑返回到登机口完成适当的维护或操作程序。在与运营人的放行工程师和维修组织的协调下,只要这些程序得到联邦航空局首席运营检查员(POI)的批准,机组人员就可以在不返回登机口的情况下完成某些MEL程序。

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Other Local regulations
Other National Aviation Authorities (NAA) may have regulations that differ from the regulations defined by the EASA or by the FAA. It is the responsibility of each Operator to check the applicable regulations with their relevant NAA.
其他国家民航管理局(NAA)可能有不同于EASA或FAA定义的规章的规定。每个运营人有责任确保他们的规章符合当地国家民航管理局的规定。

MEL consultation in flight
The MEL is defined as a dispatch document and therefore the MEL is not applicable in flight. However, if a system or equipment defect is detected during flight, the MEL information may be useful to assess the likely dispatch condition for the next flight. A detailed description of the defect detected should be entered in the tech log, and Operator’s dispatch or Maintenance Control Centre notified so they can consult MEL when the aircraft arrives.
MEL被定义为一个放行文件,因此MEL在飞行中不适用。然而,如果在飞行中检测到系统或设备缺陷,MEL信息可能有助于评估下一个航班的放行条件。检测到的缺陷的详细描述应记录在技术日志中,并通知运营人的放行工程师或维修控制中心,以便他们在飞机到达时可以查阅MEL。

What about multiple failures?
If several aircraft system functions or equipment are inoperative, operators should consult the MEL for each individual item to check if there are any incompatibilities for each of the associated dispatch conditions. If there is no MEL restriction, it is the flight crew’s responsibility to assess the situation and to decide whether or not to dispatch the aircraft with multiple inoperative items.
如果多个飞机系统功能或设备不工作,运营人应就每个单独项目查阅MEL,以检查每个相关放行条件是否有任何不兼容之处。如果没有MEL的限制,机组人员有责任评估情况,并决定是否在多个系统故障的情况下放行飞机。

小结:
MEL是航空公司根据MMEL和当地局方的政策来制定的,MEL里必须明确定义其适用的范围,FAA、EASA要求航空自己制定程序来处理飞机在滑行期间起飞之前出现的故障,适不适用MEL。CAAC具体啥要求不知道,反正国内各航司的要求基本都是MEL的使用仅限于飞机靠自身动力滑行之前,飞机已经滑出,出现故障,就机组自己根据他们的FCOM程序来处置,机务一般不给意见。MEL项目的使用必须在飞机起飞前完成(大家别以为是废话哈,有时候飞机推出了,机组报个故障,你知道可以MEL放行,这时候千万别自己决定,一定要及时上报MCC由团队来决策,延误什么的都是小事,盲目把飞机放出去,后果很严重,搞不好就回家种地了)对于MEL放行的飞机,机组有最终决定权,就算满足MEL放行条件,机组也可以拒绝飞行。在几个故障同时失效的情况下使用MEL放行飞机时,虽然单个放行都是满足的,但是必须考虑各个故障之间关联性和相互影响。


RULES AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON HOW TO USE THE MEL
From the moment of the failure has occurred until the dispatch of the aircraft, the following steps should be followed to ensure that the aircraft can be dispatched in an airworthy condition.
从故障发生的那一刻起直到飞机起飞,应遵循以下步骤,以确保飞机可以在适航状态下起飞。

Step 1: Detection of the failure 故障探测
Through an ECAM alert or an indication on the Master Warning Panel (A300 B2/B4 only) or a failure indication on the Maintenance Panel (A300/A310 only)
通过ECAM警告或者主警告面板的指示或维护面板的指示(仅A300/310)

Through an observation of the flight crew by:
– A flight deck effect (missing indication, amber indication on a System Display (SD) page, inoperative button or display, etc...)
– A defective component detected during the external walkaround (e.g. external light not illuminating)
通过机组观察到的故障
如失去指示、琥珀色指示或绕机检查发现的部件故障

Through an observation of the maintenance personnel.
通过维修人员发现的故障

Step 2: Reporting the failure
Any aircraft system function unavailability or equipment failure has to be reported in the technical logbook by the flight crew.
飞机任何系统功能不可用或设备故障必须由机组人员在技术日志中报告。

This technical logbook entry is the starting point for assessing any defect using the MEL. The flight crew should write any additional information associated to the defect that will help identify the cause of the defect such as the ECAM alert title, time of occurrence, SD page indication and flight phase.
这个技术日志条目是使用MEL评估任何缺陷的起点。机组人员应填写任何与缺陷相关的附加信息,以帮助识别缺陷的原因,如ECAM警报标题、发生时间、SD页面指示和飞行阶段。

Line Maintenance personnel can also make an entry in the aircraft’s technical logbook to report any system function defect or inoperative equipment detected during ground operations.
维修人员也可以在飞机的技术日志中记录,报告在地面操作中发现的任何系统功能缺陷或失效的设备。

NOTE
Aircraft system defects detected in the passenger cabin may be reported by the cabin crew in the cabin logbook. Should the defect have an impact on dispatch, these entries must be transferred to the aircraft’s technical logbook before assessing the relevant MEL item applicability.
在客舱中发现的飞机系统缺陷可由客舱乘务人员在客舱日志中报告。如果该缺陷对放行有影响,在评估相关MEL项目的适用性之前,必须将这些记录转移到飞机的技术日志中。

Step 3: Identification of the correct dispatch condition or MEL item associated to the failure
The identification of the failure is usually based on the ECAM alert’s title and the dispatch assessment is provided in the MEL Entries section under the “CONDITION OF DISPATCH” header (fig.1).
故障的识别通常基于ECAM警报的标题,而放行评估是在“放行条件”标题下的MEL条目部分提供的
2-VENT-EXTRACT-FAULT.jpg
KEY POINT
If a failure is classified as “NO DISPATCH” (fig.2), the aircraft must not be dispatched until the equipment or function is rectified.
如果故障被归类为“不可放行”(图2),则必须在设备或功能完成修复后才能放行飞机。
3-BRAKES-ANTI-SKID-FAULT.jpg
In some cases, MEL Entries section may require additional action by the flight crew or the maintenance crew in order to assess the dispatch conditions, particularly when:
在某些情况下,MEL条目部分可能需要机组人员或维修人员采取额外的维护措施,以评估放行情况,特别是在下列情况下:
One ECAM alert refers to several MMEL items (fig.3)
4-ANTI-ICE-L(R)-WINDSHIELD.jpg
The dispatch condition assessment depends whether the ECAM alert is actual or false (spurious) (fig.4)
5-BRAKES-BRK-Y-ACCU-LOW-PRESS.jpg
The dispatch condition assessment requires additional information such as ECAM indication on the SD page (fig.5)

6-VENT-SKIN-VALVE-FAULT.jpg
On A350, the ECAM Dispatch Messages are a straight forward help for dispatch. The flight crew finds the Dispatch Message in the MEL entries section to get the condition of dispatch or identify the applicable MEL item (fig.6)
7-LG-CTL-1(2).jpg
The A380 and A350 MEL also show a “Crew Observations” section in the MEL entries (fig.7) covering failures of monitored systems that are indicated with flight deck effects that don’t have an associated ECAM alert or Dispatch Message, for example, an amber indication on system display (SD) page or when the FAULT light of a pushbutton switch illuminates. The “Crew Observations” section also covers malfunctions that can be visually detected by the flight crew or the maintenance personnel, for example during the external walk around.
8-MANUAL-HORIZONTAL-ADJUSTMENT-INOPERATIVE.jpg
If the failure is not linked to an ECAM alert or to a failure reflected in the Crew Observation section (A380 & A350), the correct MEL item should be identified directly into the MEL items section.

KEY POINT
It is important to identify the MEL item correctly. The application of a MEL item that does not correspond to the inoperative equipment or unavailable system function may have unintended consequences for the safety of the flight.
正确识别MEL项目是很重要的,如果MEL项目的应用与失效的设备或不可用的系统功能不符,可能会对飞行的安全产生意想不到的后果。

Step 4: Review of the dispatch conditions
When the MEL item is correctly identified, the flight crew should carefully review the dispatch condition.
MEL项目已经正确识别,机组应该认真仔细复查放行条件

If there are several dispatch conditions, the title of the associated dispatch condition helps to identify which one is applicable (fig.8).
如果有几个放行条件,则其对应的标题可以帮助你识别哪一条是适用的
9-APU-BLEED-VALVE.jpg

Step 5: Decision for dispatch
Maintenance personnel may propose to dispatch the aircraft under MEL item provided that all of the associated dispatch conditions are fulfilled.
放行工程师在放行飞机前必须确保与放行条件相关发所有工作已经完成。

It is the Captain’s responsibility to accept the aircraft dispatch under the MEL item for the flight; taking into account not only the MEL dispatch condition but also the applicable operator’s policy and the operational constraints.
接受在MEL项目下放行的飞机执行航班是机组的责任,但不应该仅仅考虑放行条件,也必须适用于运营人的政策和运行限制。
A350 XWB MSN2 ON THE GROUND - EARLY LONG FLIGHT.jpg
Step 6: Log of the MEL item
The maintenance personnel must make an entry into the logbook for the MEL item and determine the deadline for rectification based on the MEL repair interval.
维修人员必须将MEL放行条目记录在技术记录本中,并根据MEL里的维修间隔来决定维修的最后期限。
BEST PRACTICE
Plan the repair as soon as possible to avoid operational disruption should additional failure occur that may make the dispatch impossible.
尽快制定维修计划,以免额外的故障导致飞机不可放行。
Inoperative items should be repaired as soon as possible and at least within the period of time defined by the repair interval (fig.9).
失效的项目应该尽快修复,并至少符合以下维修间隔要求
The allowable intervals for rectification are classified as the following:
ARecall-tab1.jpg
*Excluding the day the defect was first detected不包括故障发生当天
ARecall-schema1.png
Specificity of Category “A” repair intervals
MEL with category “A” repair intervals can use different references, e.g. calendar days, flight cycles…MEL项目里的A 类保留维修期限可使用不同的参考,日历日或飞行循环

Step 7: Initial dispatch
For the first dispatch after applying the MEL item, all dispatch conditions and associated limitations must be accounted for and any relevant maintenance (m) and operational (o) procedures must be applied to maintain an acceptable level of safety for the operation of the aircraft, even with the inoperative equipment or unavailable system function.
第一使用MEL放行,所有放行相关的条件和限制必须考虑进去,任何相关维护(m)和操作(o)程序必须完成,以保持可接受的安全水平来操作飞机,即使不起作用的设备或系统功能不可用。


BEST PRACTICE
For a complete awareness of aircraft dispatch condition, maintenance personnel should also consult the operational procedure (when applicable).
当完成一个无放行条件的MEL项目时,维修人员也应该参考并遵循运行程序(当适用时)


KEY POINT
An incorrect or incomplete application of the maintenance or operational procedure may impair the safety of the flight.
一个不正确的或未完成的维护措施/运行程序可能危害飞行安全。


Step 8: Subsequent flights dispatched under MEL item
For the subsequent flights, the flight crew must check that any open MEL item in the logbook is within the window of the repair interval and that this time limit won’t be exceeded during the next flight mission.
对于后续的飞行,机组人员必须检查飞行日志中任何开口的MEL项目是否在维修间隔的期限内,并且在下次飞行任务中不超过这个时间限制。

When the dispatch conditions are accepted by the captain (as described in step 5), all necessary operational procedures must also be applied.
当机长接受飞行条件时(如第5步所述),还必须应用所有必要的操作程序。

In the case when a new MEL item is recorded in the technical logbook, the maintenance personnel must also review all of the pre-existing MEL items to ensure that all of the dispatch conditions for each item are fulfilled.
如果在技术日志中记录了一个新的MEL项目,维护人员还必须检查所有已经存在的MEL项目,以确保每个项目的所有放行条件都已经满足。

KEY POINT
In the case of a multiple MEL items logged, flight crew and maintenance personnel must check before each flight that dispatch conditions of all MEL items are fulfilled.
当使用多个MEL项目放行飞机时,机组和维护人员必须在每次起飞前检查所有MEL项目的放行条件已经完成。

The MEL is a commonly used tool allowing for the safe and continuous operation of the aircraft until rectification of certain inoperative equipment or unavailable system functions that are not adversely affecting the airworthiness of the aircraft. But incorrectly using the MEL could lead to dispatching an aircraft in a configuration that is not airworthy and with potential consequences that could impair the safety of the flight.
Understanding the principles and rules for correctly applying MEL items is crucial for both maintenance personnel and flight crews.
When dispatching under a MEL item, the conditions of dispatch and the rectification interval must be taken into account and the associated maintenance and operational procedures must be accurately applied.
It is ultimately the Captain’s responsibility to decide to dispatch the aircraft for flight under the MEL conditions.
MEL是一种常用的工具,允许飞机安全连续运行,直到某些不工作的设备或不可用的系统功能得到纠正,这些功能不会对飞机的适航性产生不利影响。但是,如果不正确地使用MEL,可能会导致放行飞机的构型不适合飞行,并可能造成损害飞行安全的潜在后果。
理解正确应用MEL项目的原则和规则对于维护人员和机组人员都是至关重要的。
MEL项下进行放行时,必须考虑到放行条件和维修间隔,准确应用相关的维护和操作程序。
最终,机长有责任决定在MEL条件下的飞机起飞。

总结:
在使用MEL放行飞机时,必须确认使用的条目和当前的故障必须适用,MEL里要求的M项必须严格执行,并且在FLB上记录,当由限制条件时,要充分考虑到后续航站的保障能力,不然飞出去就趴飞机。在多个系统由有故障情况下放行飞机,需特别谨慎,至少通报到工程部的值班经理吧,鉴于国内民航业当前的高压态势,基本不会出现这种情况,领导也不敢让你放,同时两个MEL项目放行的情况很少,除非是明显不影响飞行安全的。


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